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四川盆地与周边地区的降水垂直结构和宏微观差异研究

李剑婕 郑佳锋 刘艳霞 程志刚 贺婧姝 任涛 陈绍婕

李剑婕,郑佳锋,刘艳霞,程志刚,贺婧姝,任涛,陈绍婕. 2022. 四川盆地与周边地区的降水垂直结构和宏微观差异研究. 气象学报,80(2):205-223 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.012
引用本文: 李剑婕,郑佳锋,刘艳霞,程志刚,贺婧姝,任涛,陈绍婕. 2022. 四川盆地与周边地区的降水垂直结构和宏微观差异研究. 气象学报,80(2):205-223 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.012
Li Jianjie, Zheng Jiafeng, Liu Yanxia, Cheng Zhigang, He Jingshu, Ren Tao, Chen Shaojie. 2022. A study on vertical structure and macro- to micro-characteristics and differences of precipitation in Sichuan basin and the surrounding areas. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(2):205-223 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.012
Citation: Li Jianjie, Zheng Jiafeng, Liu Yanxia, Cheng Zhigang, He Jingshu, Ren Tao, Chen Shaojie. 2022. A study on vertical structure and macro- to micro-characteristics and differences of precipitation in Sichuan basin and the surrounding areas. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(2):205-223 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.012

四川盆地与周边地区的降水垂直结构和宏微观差异研究

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.012
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41971026)、江苏省气象科学研究所北极阁基金(BJG201901)、成都信息工程大学人才引进项目(KYTZ201728)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李剑婕,主要从事雷达气象学研究。E-mail:651186296@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    郑佳锋,主要从事雷达气象学研究。E-mail:zjf1988@cuit.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P412.27

A study on vertical structure and macro- to micro-characteristics and differences of precipitation in Sichuan basin and the surrounding areas

  • 摘要: 为进一步认识地形对降水的影响,利用2014年3月—2020年12月全球降水测量卫星(GPM)星载双频雷达(DPR)探测资料研究了四川盆地(C1)及邻近山地(C2)和高原东坡(C3)降水的垂直结构及宏微观特征和差异。结果表明:(1)GPM/DPR与地面雨滴谱仪的测量结果有较好的一致性。(2)降水样本总数为C1>C3>C2,层性云降水频次远高于对流云降水。(3)两类降水的降水顶高度均为C3>C2>C1。层性云降水,C1能够发展到最强,垂直厚度最大、雨滴谱最宽。降水顶向下,回波强度、雨滴谱和降水强度均增大。0℃层以上,C3回波增强最快;0℃层以下,C1回波达到最强,降水强度增强最快。(4)对于对流云降水,C2和C3弱对流的回波较强、垂直尺度较大,粒径较小而数浓度较高。C1强对流的回波较强、垂直尺度较大,大粒子数浓度更高。降水顶往下,回波强度和降水强度均增强,降水强度廓线斜率最大的地区从C2转为C1,至近地面前斜率均为0。粒径和数浓度变化较复杂,C1以凝结和碰并占主导,C2和C3的凝结和碰并、蒸发和破碎都重要。(5)当近地面产生较小降水强度时,粒子的增长多发生在降水顶以下0.5—2 km;随后蒸发和破碎效应增强,尤其是C1。当近地面降水强度进一步增强时,凝结和碰并作用占主导。

     

  • 图 1  研究区域的地理位置和地形 (a,色阶:海拔高度) 及3个子地区分布 (b,色阶:3个子区,黑色点为激光雨滴谱仪站点)

    Figure 1.  Geographical location and topography of the study area (a,shaded:altitude) and the three sub-regions determined by altitudes (b,shaded:three areas)

    图 2  GPM/DPR离地最近距离库和地面Parsivel雨滴谱仪的测量结果对比 (a. Ze, b. R, c. Dm, d. dBNw

    Figure 2.  Matching results of GPM/DPR (using the gate closest to the ground) and Parsivel for Ze (a),R (b),Dm (c),dBNw (d)

    图 3  观测期间500 (a)、700 (b)和850 (c) hPa平均水平风场 (风矢) 和水汽通量 (色阶)

    Figure 3.  Average horizontal wind fields (black arrow) and water vapor fluxes (shaded) at 500 (a),700 (b) and 850 (c) hPa for the study region during the observation period

    图 4  三个子地区两类降水的HET概率分布 (a. 层性降水,b. 对流降水)

    Figure 4.  PDFs of HETs for two precipitation types in the three sub-regions (a. stratiform precipitation,b. convective precipitation)

    图 5  三个子地区层性降水Ze的NCFAD (a1—c1. 按T0对齐后的观测结果,a2—c2. 按海拔高度的观测结果,a、b、c分别对应C1、C2、C3;d1—d2. 中位数廓线和T0的对比结果;Distance代表与T0的距离,ASL代表海拔高度;色阶:不同高度、不同参量区间的频数与所有区间最大频数的比值;带标号的曲线为中位数廓线,水平黑色实线为T0,水平黑色虚线为T0加/减一倍标准差的高度)

    Figure 5.  NCFADs of Ze for stratiform precipitation observed over three sub-regions (a1—c1. results according to T0,a2—c2. results by altitude,the C1,C2,and C3 are presented a,b and c;d1—d2. results of median profiles and T0;Distance stands for distance from T0,ASL stands for altitude;shaded,ratio of frequencies of different heights and different parameter intervals to maximum frequencies of all intervals;marked profiles are medians,horizontal solid black lines represent T0,and horizontal dashed black lines denote T0 plus or minus their standard deviations)

    Continued

    图 6  三个子区对流降水Ze的NCFAD (a—c. C1、C2、C3观测,d. 中位数廓线和T0对比;ASL为海拔高度;色阶:不同高度、不同参量区间的频数与所有区间最大频数的比值;带标号的曲线为中位数廓线,水平黑色实线为T0,水平黑色虚线为T0加/减一倍标准差的高度)

    Figure 6.  NCFADs of Ze for convective precipitation observed over three sub-regions (a—c. results for C1,C2,and C3,d. results of median profiles and T0;ASL stands for altitude;shaded,ratio of frequencies of different heights and different parameter intervals to maximum frequencies of all intervals;marked profiles are medians,horizontal solid black lines represent T0,and horizontal dashed black lines denote T0 plus or minus their standard deviations)

    图 7  三个子地区层性降水Dm (a1—d1、a2—d2) 和dBNw (a3—d3、a4—d4) 的NCFAD (a1—c1、a3—c3. 按T0对齐后的观测, a2—c2、a4—c4. 按海拔高度的观测,a、b和c分别对应C1、C2、C3;d. 中位数廓线和T0的对比;Distance代表与T0的距离,ASL代表海拔高度;色阶:不同高度、不同参量区间的频数与所有区间最大频数的比值;带标号的曲线为中位数,水平黑色实线为T0,水平黑色虚线为T0加/减一倍标准差的高度)

    Figure 7.  NCFADs of Dm and dBNw for stratiform precipitation observed over three sub-regions (a1—c1,a3—c3. results by altitude,a2—c2,a4—c4. results according to T0,the C1,C2,and C3 are presented a,b and c;d1—d2,d3—d4. results of median profiles and T0;Distance stands for distance from T0,ASL stands for altitude;shaded,ratio of frequencies of different heights and different parameter intervals to maximum frequencies of all intervals;marked profiles are medians,horizontal solid black lines represent T0,and horizontal dashed black lines denote T0 plus or minus their standard deviations)

    Continued

    Continued

    图 8  三个子地区对流降水Dm (a1—d1) 和dBNw (a2—d2) 的NCFAD (a—c. C1、C2和C3的观测,d. 中位数和T0的对比;ASL代表海拔高度;色阶:不同高度、不同参量区间的频数与所有区间最大频数的比值;带标号的曲线为中位数,水平黑色实线为T0,水平黑色虚线为T0加/减一倍标准差的高度)

    Figure 8.  NCFADs of Dm and dBNw for convective precipitation observed over three sub-regions (a1—c1,a2—c2. results for C1,C2,and C3;d1,d2. results of median profiles and T0;ASL stands for altitude;shaded,ratio of frequencies of different heights and different parameter intervals to maximum frequencies of all intervals;marked profiles are medians,horizontal solid black lines represent T0,and horizontal dashed black lines denote T0 plus or minus their standard deviations)

    Continued

    图 9  三个子区层性降水在Rs1≤0.4 mm/h (a1—a3)、0.4<Rs2≤0.7 mm/h (b1—b3)、0.7<Rs3≤1.2 mm/h (c1—c3)和Rs4>1.2 mm/h (d1—d3)的Ze(a1—d1)、Dm(a2—d2)和dBNw(a3—d3)的平均廓线

    Figure 9.  Average profiles of Ze (a1—d1),Dm (a2—d2),and dBNw (a3—d3) for stratiform precipitation calculated by Rs1≤0.4 mm/h (a1—a3),0.4<Rs2≤0.7 mm/h (b1—b3),0.7<Rs3≤1.2 mm/h (c1—c3) and Rs4>1.2 mm/h (d1—d3

    图 10  三个子区对流降水在Rs1≤0.7 mm/h (a1—a3)、0.7<Rs2≤1.7 mm/h (b1—b3)、1.7<Rs3≤4.2 mm/h (c1—c3)和Rs4>4.2 mm/h (d1—d3)的Ze(a1—d1)、Dm(a2—d2)和dBNw(a3—d3)的平均廓线

    Figure 10.  Average profiles of Ze (a1—d1),Dm (a2—d2),and dBNw (a3—d3) for convective precipitation calculated by Rs1≤0.7 mm/h (a1—a3),0.7<Rs2≤1.7 mm/h (b1—b3),1.7<Rs3≤4.2 mm/h (c1—c3) and Rs4>4.2 mm/h (d1—d3

    图 11  三个子地区层性降水 (a1—c1) 和对流降水 (a2—c2R的平均廓线 (a、b和c分别对应C1、C2和C3,黑色圆、三角、正方形分别为降水顶向下到第1、第2、第3个廓线斜率变化的高度)

    Figure 11.  Average profiles of R for the stratiform precipitation (a1—c1) and convective precipitation (a2—c2) (C1,C2,and C3 are presented a,b,and c;black circle represents height of slope change from the precipitation top down to the first profile, black triangle represents height of slope change further down to the second profile, and black square represents height of slope change further down to the third profile)

    表  1  观测期间GPM/DPR在3个子地区探测的层性和对流降水样本数及百分比

    Table  1.   Total sample numbers and percentages of stratiform and convective precipitation detected by GPM/DPR in the three sub-regions during the observation period

    降水类型不同子地区廓线数(占比)
    C1C2C3总数
    层性降水总面积 143003(91.3%)103314(91.0%)130071(90.1%)376388
    单位面积0.610.510.550.56
    对流降水总面积 13548(8.7%)10277(9.0%)14231(9.9%)38056
    单位面积0.0580.0510.0610.057
    总数  总面积 156551113591144302414444
    单位面积0.670.560.610.62
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  三个子地区两类降水的HET分位数和平均值

    Table  2.   HET statistical quantiles and averages of two precipitation types in the three sub-regions

    降水类型子区分位数(km)平均值(km)
    5%25%50%75%95%
    层性降水C13.04.75.77.09.35.9
    C24.35.36.37.79.76.5
    C35.76.77.38.310.07.6
    对流降水C13.05.36.79.313.37.4
    C24.35.77.09.012.37.5
    C35.76.78.09.713.08.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  三个子地区两类降水强度的斜率

    Table  3.   Slopes of R for stratiform and convective precipitation in the three sub-regions

    C1C2C3
    层性降水第1层−0.30−0.31−0.25
    第2层−0.40−0.39−0.29
    第3层−0.06−0.04−0.01
    对流降水第1层−0.16−0.20−0.14
    第2层−0.28−0.28−0.17
    第3层−0.07−0.06−0.03
    第4层000
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-05
  • 修回日期:  2021-11-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-07

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