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气候模式分辨率对气溶胶气候效应模拟结果的影响

郜倩倩 刘煜 郭增元 彭艳玉

郜倩倩,刘煜,郭增元,彭艳玉. 2022. 气候模式分辨率对气溶胶气候效应模拟结果的影响. 气象学报,80(4):515-532 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.019
引用本文: 郜倩倩,刘煜,郭增元,彭艳玉. 2022. 气候模式分辨率对气溶胶气候效应模拟结果的影响. 气象学报,80(4):515-532 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.019
Gao Qianqian, Liu Yu, Guo Zengyuan, Peng Yanyu. 2022. The impact of climate model resolution on simulation results of aerosol climate effects. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(4):515-532 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.019
Citation: Gao Qianqian, Liu Yu, Guo Zengyuan, Peng Yanyu. 2022. The impact of climate model resolution on simulation results of aerosol climate effects. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(4):515-532 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.019

气候模式分辨率对气溶胶气候效应模拟结果的影响

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.019
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0603501)、中国气象科学研究院科技发展基金项目(2021KJ020)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郜倩倩,主要从事气溶胶气候变化研究。E-mail:18101283632@163.com

    通讯作者:

    刘煜,主要从事气候变化研究。E-mail:yuliu@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P461+.8

The impact of climate model resolution on simulation results of aerosol climate effects

  • 摘要: 气候模式分辨率作为影响模式模拟结果的重要因素,其对气溶胶与云相互作用的影响尚未全面认识。利用公共大气模型CAM5.3在3种分辨率(2°、1°、0.5°)下,分别采用2000年和1850年气溶胶排放情景进行试验,检验提高分辨率是否能改进气候模式的模拟能力,分析不同分辨率下气溶胶气候效应的异同,探索模式分辨率对气溶胶气候效应数值模拟结果的影响。通过观测资料与模式结果对比发现,提高分辨率可以明显改进模式对总云量、云短波辐射强迫的模拟能力,0.5°分辨率下模拟结果与观测更接近,其他变量并无明显改善。在不同分辨率下,全球平均的气溶胶气候效应较为一致,总云量、云水路径均增加,云短波和长波辐射强迫均加强,而云顶的云滴有效半径和降水均减小,地面气温降低。不同分辨率下,气溶胶增加引起的气溶胶光学厚度、云水路径、地面温度、云短波和长波辐射强迫变化的纬向平均分布相似但大小存在差异;而降水和云量变化的纬向分布与大小均存在较大差异,在区域尺度上还存在较大的不确定性。全球平均而言, 0.5°分辨率下气溶胶的间接辐射强迫相比1°分辨率下的结果降低了2.5%,相比2°分辨率下的结果降低了6.4%。提高模式分辨率可以部分改进模式模拟能力,同时,气溶胶的间接效应随着模式分辨率的提高而减弱。但气溶胶引起的云量、降水的变化在不同分辨率下差异较大,存在较大的不确定性。

     

  • 图 1  各物理量的PD试验结果与观测资料的多年平均纬向对比 (a. 气溶胶的光学厚度,b. 垂直积分的云滴数浓度 (单位:1010 cm−2),c. 云水路径 (单位:g/m2),d. 云顶的云滴有效半径 (单位:μm),e. 总云量 (单位:%),f. 总降水 (单位:mm/d),g. 云短波辐射强迫(单位:W/m2), h. 云长波辐射强迫 (单位:W/m2))

    Figure 1.  Multi-year average zonal comparison of physical quantities between PD experiment results and observations (a. aerosols optical depth,b. vertically integrated cloud droplet concentration (unit:1010 cm−2), c. cloud water liquid path (unit:g/m2),d. cloud droplets effective radius at cloud top (unit:μm),e. total cloud cover (unit:%),f. total precipitation (unit:mm/d),g. cloud shortwave radiative forcing (unit:W/m2),h. cloud longwave radiative forcing (unit:W/m2))

    Continued

    图 2  30°S—30°N区域平均的云微物理过程和诊断量的垂直廓线 (a.云水自动转化率, b. 雨水收集率(单位:10−9 kg/(kg·s)),c. 相对湿度(单位:%))

    Figure 2.  Cloud microphysical processes and vertical profiles of some diagnostics in the 30°S—30°N region (a. average cloud-water auto-conversion rate,b. rainwater accretion rate (unit:10−9 kg/(kg·s),c. relative humidity (unit:%) )

    对流降水 (a) 和大尺度降水 (b) 的PD试验结果(单位:mm/ d) 以及 (c) 两者比值的多年平均纬向分布

    The multi-year average zonal trends of convective precipitation,large-scale precipitation (unit:mm/ d) and the radio (convective precipitation/large-scale precipitation) in PD experiment results

    雨水收集率 (a) 和云水自动转化率 (b) 的PD试验结果的多年平均纬向分布 (单位:10−6 kg/(m2·s))

    The multi-year average zonal trends of cloud-water autoconversion rate (b) and rainwater accretion rate (a) in PD experiment results (unit:10−6 kg/(m2·s))

    图 3  PD试验与观测资料的泰勒图 (a. 总云量 ,b. 云水路径,c. 云顶的云滴有效半径,d. 总降水,e. 云短波辐射强迫,f. 云长波辐射强迫 )

    Figure 3.  Taylor diagram of PD experiment results and observations (a. total cloud cover ,b. cloud water liquid path, c. cloud droplets effective radius at cloud top,d. total precipitation,e. cloud shortwave radiative forcing,f. cloud longwave radiative forcing)

    Continued

    图 4  气溶胶和云变量的PD与PI试验结果差值 (a.气溶胶光学厚度,b.垂直积分的云滴数浓度 (单位:1010 cm−2),c.云顶的云滴有效半径 (单位:μm),d.云水路径 (单位:g/m2))

    Figure 4.  Differences in aerosols and cloud variables between the PD and PI experiment results (a. aerosols optical depth,b. vertically integrated cloud droplet concentration (unit:1010 cm−2),c. cloud droplets effective radius at cloud top (unit:μm),d. cloud water liquid path (unit:g/m2))

    图 5  降水 (单位:mm/d) 与地面温度 (单位:K) 的PD与PI试验结果差值 (a. 总降水, b. 对流降水, c. 大尺度降水,d. 地面气温)

    Figure 5.  Differences in precipitation (unit:mm/d) and surface temperature (unit:K) between the PD and PI experiment results (a. total precipitation,b. convective precipitation,c. large-scale precipitation,d. surface temperature)

    图 6  不同云量的PD与PI试验结果差值 (a. 低云量, b. 中云量, c. 高云量, d. 总云量;单位:%)

    Figure 6.  Differences in various types of cloud cover between the PD and PI experiment results (a. low cloud cover,b. medium cloud cover,c. high cloud cover,d. total cloud cover;unit:%)

    图 7  云辐射强迫的PD与PI试验结果差值 (a. 云短波辐射强迫,b. 云长波辐射强迫;单位:W/m2

    Figure 7.  Differences in cloud radiative forcing between the PD and PI experiment results (a. cloud shortwave radiative forcing,b. cloud longwave radiative forcing;unit:W/m2

    图 8  总云量 (a—c,单位:%)、总降水 (d—f,单位:mm/d) 的PD与PI试验结果差值的全球分布 (a、d. 2°分辨率,b、e. 1°分辨率, c、f. 0.5°分辨率)

    Figure 8.  Global distributions of differences in total cloud cover (a,b,c; unit:%) and total precipitation (d,e,f;unit:mm/d ) between the PD and PI experiment results at three horizontal grid intervals of 2° (a,d),1° (b,e),0.5° (c,f)

    图 9  云水路径 (a、b、c,单位:g/m2) 与云短波辐射强迫 (d、e、f;单位:W/m2) 的PD与PI试验结果差值的全球分布 (a、d. 2°分辨率,b、e. 1°分辨率,c、f. 0.5°分辨率)

    Figure 9.  Global distributions of differences in cloud-water liquid path (a,b,c; unit:g/m2 ) and cloud short-wave radiative forcing (d,e,f; unit:W/m2) between PD and PI experiment results at three horizontal grid intervals of 2° (a,d),1° (b,e),0.5° (c,f)

    30°S—30°N云水含量 (单位:mg/m3) 的垂直分布 (a. 2°,b. 1°,c. 0.5° )

    Vertical distribution of cloud water content (unit:mg/m3) in 30°S—30°N latitude zone (a. 2°,b. 1°,c. 0.5° )

    三种分辨率下 (a. 2°,b. 1°,c. 0.5° ) 云水自动转化率的PD与PI试验结果差值的全球分布 (单位:10−6 kg/(m2·s))

    The global distribution of the difference in cloud water autoconversion rate (unit:10−6 kg/(m2·s)) between the PD and PI experiment results at three horizontal grid intervals of 2°(a),1°(b) and 0.5°(c)

    表  1  数值模拟试验设计

    Table  1.   Numerical experiments design

    试验分辨率
    (º)
    模拟时间
    (a)
    气溶胶
    排放情景(PD)
    气溶胶
    排放情景(PI)
    2deg215AR5 2000AR5 1850
    1deg115AR5 2000AR5 1850
    0.5deg0.515AR5 2000AR5 1850
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同分辨率下气溶胶增加引起的物理量变化的全球、半球平均值

    Table  2.   Global and hemispheric averages of changes in physical quantities caused by the increase in aerosols at different resolutions

    变量0.5°
    全球北半球南半球全球北半球南半球全球北半球南半球
    ΔCDCN (1010 cm−2))3.796.041.543.645.831.453.715.941.48
    ΔRE (μm)−0.41−0.65−0.17−0.41−0.66−0.15−0.39−0.63−0.15
    ΔLWP (g/m23.545.271.793.495.341.593.845.861.82
    ΔTS (K)−0.07−0.09−0.04−0.03−0.06−0.00−0.08−0.14−0.03
    ΔCLDTOT (%)0.200.330.080.180.41−0.040.260.500.01
    ΔPRECT (mm/d)−0.017−0.032−0.001−0.017−0.011−0.022−0.013−0.007−0.019
    ΔPRECL (mm/d)−0.004−0.005−0.003−0.017−0.018−0.016−0.021−0.024−0.017
    ΔPRECC (mm/d)−0.013−0.0270.0020.0000.007−0.0070.0080.017−0.002
    ΔSWCF (W/m2−1.75−2.52−0.98−1.65−2.54−0.76−1.62−2.50−0.73
    ΔLWCF (W/m20.500.740.250.450.90−0.000.450.800.09
    AIF (W/m2−1.25−1.78−0.73−1.20−1.64−0.76−1.17−1.70−0.64
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-30
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-22
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-06

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