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江苏典型下击暴流风暴结构特征统计分析

王易 郑媛媛 庄潇然 张静 慕瑞琪 孙康远

王易,郑媛媛,庄潇然,张静,慕瑞琪,孙康远. 2022. 江苏典型下击暴流风暴结构特征统计分析. 气象学报,80(4):592-603 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.023
引用本文: 王易,郑媛媛,庄潇然,张静,慕瑞琪,孙康远. 2022. 江苏典型下击暴流风暴结构特征统计分析. 气象学报,80(4):592-603 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.023
Wang Yi, Zheng Yuanyuan, Zhuang Xiaoran, Zhang Jing, Mu Ruiqi, Sun Kangyuan. 2022. Statistical analysis of the structural characteristics of typical downbursts in Jiangsu province,China. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(4):592-603 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.023
Citation: Wang Yi, Zheng Yuanyuan, Zhuang Xiaoran, Zhang Jing, Mu Ruiqi, Sun Kangyuan. 2022. Statistical analysis of the structural characteristics of typical downbursts in Jiangsu province,China. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(4):592-603 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.023

江苏典型下击暴流风暴结构特征统计分析

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.023
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(U2142203)、北极阁基金项目(BJG201907)、江苏省气象局科研重点项目(KZ202001)、江苏省“333工程”科研项目(BRA2020427)、南京气象科技创新研究院北极阁开放研究基金(BJG202103)、中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2021Z003)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王易,主要从事短时临近预报研究。E-mail:wangyi401@163.com

    通讯作者:

    郑媛媛,主要从事雷达气象和天气预报研究。E-mail:zhengyy63@sina.com

  • 中图分类号:  P425.8

Statistical analysis of the structural characteristics of typical downbursts in Jiangsu province,China

  • 摘要: 为了研究江苏地区下击暴流的结构特征,利用常规天气资料、雷达探测资料、自动气象站观测资料和ERA5再分析资料等,选取2007—2018年江苏地区19个典型下击暴流过程进行统计分析。结果表明:江苏下击暴流的分布呈北多南少,以湿下击暴流为主,7月是下击暴流的高发月份,孤立风暴型下击暴流具有弱的天气尺度强迫和上干下湿的结构,风暴移速较慢,飑线镶嵌型下击暴流具有很强的天气尺度强迫特征,风暴移速较快。下击暴流影响期间地面温度变化剧烈,温度降低伴随有明显风速增大过程。统计显示,产生下击暴流风暴的环境温度平均垂直递减率为6.8℃/km,能够保证负浮力的维持,干冷空气被中层辐合气流夹卷进入风暴内进一步加强了下沉气流,使得下击暴流得以维持和加强。下击暴流的初生阶段,强反射率因子核心和中层径向辐合出现在下击暴流发生前20—30 min,成熟阶段,强反射率因子核心高度有明显降低,低层呈辐散结构。

     

  • 图 1  2007—2018年江苏省典型下击暴流发生地点分布 (色阶为地形高度,圆圈代表下击暴流发生地点)

    Figure 1.  Distribution of typical downburst cases in Jiangsu from 2007 to 2018 (shaded areas indicate terrain elevation in Jiangsu,circles indicate the distribution of downburst)

    图 2  2007—2018年典型下击暴流和江苏雷暴大风出现频率月变化(a)、典型下击暴流出现频率日变化(b)

    Figure 2.  Monthly variation of occurrence frequency of typical downbursts and thunderstorm gales (a),diurnal variation of occurrence frequency of typical downbursts (b) during 2007—2018

    图 3  孤立风暴型和飑线镶嵌型下击暴流850和500 hPa假相当位温差 (a) 和0—6 km风切变 (b) 的累积频率分布

    Figure 3.  Cumulative frequency distributions of (a) θse850–500 and (b) Wsr0–6 for downbursts caused by isolated storms and downbursts embedded in squall lines

    图 4  下击暴流影响期间温度降幅 (a) 和风速增幅 (b)频率分布

    Figure 4.  Percentage distributions of temperature drop (a) and wind speed increase (b) during the downburst

    图 5  2017年7月14日19时07分雷达风场反演

    Figure 5.  Radar wind field inversion at 19:07 BT 14 July 2017

    图 6  最强反射率因子出现时间与下击暴流发生时间差的频率分布

    Figure 6.  Frequency distribution of time lag between the occurrences of the strongest reflectivity factor and the downburst

    图 7  2007年8月2日14时50分(a)、2017年7月14日19时07分(b)反射率因子剖面

    Figure 7.  Reflectivity factor profiles at (a) 14:50 BT 2 August 2007 and (b) 19:07 BT 14 July 2017

    图 8  中层径向辐合出现时间与下击暴流发生时间差的频率分布

    Figure 8.  Frequency distribution of time lag between occurrences of the mid-altitude radial convergence and the downburst

    图 9  2007年8月2日14时56分 (a)、2017年7月14日19时01分 (b) 径向速度剖面

    Figure 9.  Radial velocity profiles at (a) 14:56 BT 2 August 2007 and (b) 19:01 BT 14 July 2017

    图 10  下击暴流成熟阶段低层径向速度差频率分布

    Figure 10.  Frequency distribution of low-level radial velocity difference in the mature stage of the downburst

    图 11  2007年8月2日15时14分 (a)、2017年7月14日19时30分 (b) 径向速度剖面

    Figure 11.  Radial velocity profiles at (a) 15:14 BT 2 August 2007 and (b) 19:30 BT 14 July 2017

    图 12  2007年8月2日16时02分 (a)、2017年7月14日20时17分 (b) 径向速度剖面

    Figure 12.  Radial velocity profiles at (a) 16:02 BT 2 August 2007 and (b) 20:17 BT 14 July 2017

    表  1  不同风暴类型下击暴流的热动力特征统计

    Table  1.   Statistics of thermal and dynamic characteristics of downburst under different storm types

    V
    (km/h)
    CAPE
    (J/kg)
    ϴse850-500
    (℃)
    LCL
    (hPa)
    Wsr0-2
    (m/s)
    Wsr0-6
    (m/s)
    孤立风暴型(DIS)16 239520.988784.5 8.29
    飑线镶嵌型
    (DSL)
    47.5141018.8 8936.2815.96
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  江苏典型下击暴流过程的垂直温度变化

    Table  2.   Vertical temperature changes accompanied with typical downbursts in Jiangsu

    时间环境空气最大
    露点差高度
    (km)
    0℃层
    高度
    (km)
    下击暴流发生
    前地面温度
    (℃)
    0℃层以下温度
    平均递减率
    (℃/km)
    200606273.14.230.17.2
    200707258.45.131.96.3
    200708025.74.935.17.2
    200807079.55.134.96.8
    2010080410.85.435.26.5
    201107277.45.233.36.4
    201508066.54.634.77.5
    20160729a6.65.237.87.3
    20160729b6.65.138.17.5
    201607307.55.135.36.9
    201707057.44.732.66.9
    201707149.54.834.37.1
    201708078.45.336.86.9
    201708198.54.832.66.8
    201708287.55.336.16.8
    201803045.64.120.35.0
    201805164.84.634.37.5
    20180628a4.94.528.16.2
    20180628b4.94.628.76.2
    注:时间列中的a和b表示同一日期内两个不同下击暴流个例,下同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  江苏典型下击暴流发生前强反射率因子统计

    Table  3.   Statistics of strong reflectivity before the occurrence of typical downbursts in Jiangsu

    时间强反射率因子
    核心强度
    (dBz)
    强反射率因子
    核心高度
    (km)
    仰角
    (°)
    与雷达中
    心距离
    (km)
    20060627603.12.461
    20070725603.44.344
    20070802604.54.356
    20080707652.23.435
    20100804///2.7
    20110727551.33.420
    20150806632.76.024
    20160729a630.96.08.5
    20160729b580.86.07.4
    20160730632.06.012.4
    20170705633.66.033
    20170714634.34.354.1
    20170807531.26.011.9
    20170819653.46.030.9
    20170828635.26.047.6
    20180304744.06.035.6
    20180516632.86.026.2
    20180628a697.06.063.1
    20180628b636.04.374.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  江苏典型下击暴流发生前径向速度统计

    Table  4.   Radial velocity statistics before the occurrence of typical downbursts in Jiangsu

    径向速度
    差(m/s)
    径向速度大值
    区高度(km)
    仰角
    (°)
    与雷达中心
    距离(km)
    20060627484.03.462
    20070725343.84.347.9
    20070802415.56.050.5
    20080707243.76.036.3
    20100804///2.7
    20110727203.16.027.7
    20150806152.76.024.4
    20160729a120.96.08.1
    20160729b190.46.02.8
    20160730242.36.015.7
    20170705154.06.036.6
    20170714204.64.358.6
    20170807191.16.010.1
    20170819314.16.037.7
    20170828154.96.045.6
    20180304343.66.032.3
    20180516312.16.028.2
    20180628a395.74.361.8
    20180628b207.76.071.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  江苏典型下击暴流成熟阶段强反射率因子统计

    Table  5.   Statistics of strong reflectivity in the mature stage of typical downbursts in Jiangsu

    时间强反射率因子
    核心强度
    (dBz)
    强反射率因子
    核心高度
    (km)
    仰角
    (°)
    与雷达
    中心距离
    (km)
    20060627580.60.549.5
    20070725580.40.530.6
    20070802580.50.544.5
    20080707630.20.517.5
    20100804////
    20110727630.20.520.6
    20150806630.40.523.5
    20160729a580.61.56.6
    20160729b580.31.58.4
    20160730580.70.512.9
    20170705630.40.530.3
    20170714580.60.546.8
    20170807530.31.510.3
    20170819630.70.554.3
    20170828580.70.554.5
    20180304650.50.534.1
    20180516580.20.521.1
    20180628a630.60.542.9
    20180628b580.80.558.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-30
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-02-22

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