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淮北地区不同类型暴雨雨滴谱特征及其Z-R关系研究

张庆池 刘端阳 武艳 吕翔 朱丽 刘子贺

张庆池,刘端阳,武艳,吕翔,朱丽,刘子贺. 2022. 淮北地区不同类型暴雨雨滴谱特征及其Z-R关系研究. 气象学报,80(6):967-985 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.025
引用本文: 张庆池,刘端阳,武艳,吕翔,朱丽,刘子贺. 2022. 淮北地区不同类型暴雨雨滴谱特征及其Z-R关系研究. 气象学报,80(6):967-985 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.025
Zhang Qingchi, Liu Duanyang, Wu Yan, Lü Xiang, Zhu Li, Liu Zihe. 2022. Raindrop spectral characteristics and Z-R relationship of different rainstorm types in Huaibei region. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(6):967-985 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.025
Citation: Zhang Qingchi, Liu Duanyang, Wu Yan, Lü Xiang, Zhu Li, Liu Zihe. 2022. Raindrop spectral characteristics and Z-R relationship of different rainstorm types in Huaibei region. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(6):967-985 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.025

淮北地区不同类型暴雨雨滴谱特征及其Z-R关系研究

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.025
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42075063)、江苏省气象局重点项目(KZ202107)、徐州市气象局面上项目(202012)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张庆池,主要从事气象预报工作和大气物理研究。 E-mail:zhangqc0910@163.com

    通讯作者:

    刘端阳,主要从事大气物理与大气环境研究。 E-mail:liuduanyang2001@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P401 P426.61+1

Raindrop spectral characteristics and Z-R relationship of different rainstorm types in Huaibei region

  • 摘要: 选取2017—2020年淮北地区夏季雨滴谱观测资料对低槽型、副热带高压边缘型、冷涡影响型和台风型4种类型暴雨的雨滴谱进行分析。研究表明淮北地区降水主要以层状云为主,而对总降水贡献率大的却是对流云降水。不同类型暴雨微物理量同样存在差异,低槽型、台风型暴雨的粒子数浓度较大,副热带高压边缘型和冷涡影响型各种特征直径比其他两类大。分析不同尺度雨滴粒子与雨强的关系,小雨滴数浓度占比超过60%,但对雨强起主要贡献的是中粒子,不同类型暴雨的差异主要是由小雨滴和大雨滴对雨强贡献率的差异造成的;并且随着雨强的增大,小雨滴的贡献率逐渐降低,大雨滴增大。不同雨强档下的雨滴谱分布基本呈单峰型,随着雨强增大各尺度档粒子数浓度升高,谱宽增大,斜率逐渐减小;当雨强增大时质量平均直径(Dm)-标准化参数(lgNW)分布趋于集中,Dm和lgNW的平均值分别为1.15 mm和3.79 mm−1m−3;通过Γ分布拟合发现,低槽型和台风型暴雨谱分布参数的平均值和标准差大于另外两类;除标准化参数的偏度为负值外,其余各参数的偏度均为正值;不同类型暴雨谱型-斜率(µ-Λ)及反射率因子-雨强(Z-R)略有差异。研究得出的淮北地区暴雨Z-R关系为Z=164.4R1.42,相比之下,目前雷达系统采用的标准关系式低估了淮北地区暴雨降水量,尤其在评估低槽型和台风型暴雨时误差较大。

     

  • 图 1  徐州地区4种不同类型暴雨500 hPa环流形势 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 1.  500 hPa circulation patterns for the four different types of rainstorm in Xuzhou (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 2  不同大小雨强的降水频率分布 (灰色) 及其对总降水的贡献率 (黑色)

    Figure 2.  Relationship between precipitation frequency (gray column),contribution to the total precipitation (black column) and rainfall intensity

    图 3  观测得到的雨滴尺度-速度谱分布 (色阶代表对数尺度的雨滴数,红色*代表实测平均加权速度,蓝色实线表示Atlas等 (1973) 雨滴末速度拟合曲线,黑色实线是下落速度的拟合曲线) 和各尺度档的箱线图 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 3.  Occurrence of velocity-diameter combinations (color shading represents drop counts on a log scale,red star represents measured average weighted velocity,solid black line shows the fitting curve of falling velocity,and the blue line indicates the Atlas,et al (1973) terminal drop velocity) and the box plot of each raindrop size classes (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 4  不同类型暴雨 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型) 雨滴谱时间序列 (色阶为数浓度NDi),单位:mm−1m−3;黑色点线为质量平均直径,红色实线代表雨强)

    Figure 4.  Time series of DSDs for (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4) different types of rainstorm (the shadings represent DSD,unit:mm−1m−3;the black dotted line is the mass-weighted mean diameter,and the red solid line is the rainfall rate)

    图 5  各档雨滴对总数浓度NT (灰色)、总雨强R (蓝色) 和总回波强度Z (红色) 的贡献率 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 5.  Relative contributions of individual size classes to total drop concentration NT (grey),rain rate R (blue) and Z (red) for the whole data set (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 6  不同雨强下 (R,单位:mm/h) 不同尺度粒子对降水率的贡献 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 6.  Contributions of particles of different scales to precipitation rate under different rainfall intensities (R,unit:mm/h)(a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 7  不同类型暴雨平均雨滴谱分布及Γ函数拟合谱

    Figure 7.  Mean raindrop spectra and Γ fitting spectra for different types of rainstorm

    图 8  不同类型暴雨各参数箱线图、平均数 (Mean)、标准差 (SD) 和偏度 (SK)(a. μ,b. Λ,c. lgN0, d. Dm,e. lgNW

    Figure 8.  Box plot,mean,standard deviation (SD) and skewness (SK) of parameters for different rainstorm types (a. μ,b. Λ,c. lgN0, d. Dm,e. lgNW

    图 9  不同类型暴雨不同雨强下 (R,单位:mm/h) 的雨滴谱分布 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 9.  Drop size distributions under different rainfall rates (R,unit:mm/h) for different rainstorm types (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 10  不同类型暴雨的 (a1—d1) 雨滴数浓度 (NT) 与体积中值直径 (D0)、(a2—d2) 雨滴数浓度 (lgNT) 和质量平均直径 (Dm)、(a3—d3) 标准化参数 (lgNW) 和质量平均直径 (Dm)(黑色实线与虚线方框分别代表海洋性和大陆性对流区域)、(a4—d4) 标准化参数 (lgNW) 和雨滴数浓度 (lgNT)( c 为两者相关系数) 散点 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型)

    Figure 10.  Scatter plots of (a1—d1)raindrop concentration (NT) and the volume median diameter (D0),(a2—d2) raindrop concentration (lgNT) and mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm),(a3—d3) normalized intercept parameter (lgNW) and mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm)(the solid and dotted black lines represent the maritime and continental convective regions,respectively),(a4—d4) normalized intercept parameter (lgNW) and raindrops concentration (lgNT)("c" represents correlation coefficient between them) for different types of rainstorm (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4)

    图 11  不同类型暴雨 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型) 各参数与雨强的关系 (a1—d1. DmR,a2—d2. lgNTR, a3—d3. lgNWR (红色实线为使用最小二乘法的拟合曲线,蓝色实线为R≥60 mm/h时拟合曲线,并提供了拟合关系和相关系数),a4—d4. Γ分布参数 (lgN0(单位:mm−1−µ·m−3)、 μ(无量纲)、Λ(单位:mm−1)与R

    Figure 11.  Relationships between various parameters and rainfall rate of different types of rainstorm (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4; a1—d1,a2—d2,a3—d3 correspond to relationships of Dm,lgNT,lgNW with R (the red solid line is the fitting curve using the least square method,and the blue solid line is the fitting curve when the rain rate is more than 60 mm/h,and the fitting relationship and correlation coefficient are provided); a4—d4 show relationships between parameters of Γ-distribution (lgN0(unit:mm−1−µ·m−3),μ(dimensionless),Λ(unit:mm−1) and R

    图 12  不同类型暴雨 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型) 和总样本 (e) 的 μ-Λ关系 (蓝色圆圈为过滤后数据,灰色叉号为未过滤的数据,红色实线是过滤后数据的拟合曲线,黑色实线为Zhang等 (2003) 和Chen等 (2013) 经验μ-Λ关系,虚线对应Dm=(4+μ)/ΛDm=0.5、1、2、3 mm)

    Figure 12.  Relationship of μ-Λ of different types of rainstorm (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4) and total sample (e) (blue circles represent the data after filtering while gray crosses represent the data without filtering;the red and black solid lines represent the fitting of data after filtering and the empirical μ-Λ relationship from Zhang,et al (2003) and Chen,et al (2013);the dashed lines correspond to the relationship Dm=(4+μ)/Λ given the value of Dm=0.5,1,2,3 mm)

    Continued

    图 13  不同类型暴雨 (a. 低槽型,b. 副热带高压边缘型,c. 冷涡影响型,d. 台风型) 和总样本 (e) 的Z-R散点分布 (蓝色圆圈为过滤后数据,灰色叉号为未过滤数据,紫色点线为未过滤数据拟合曲线,红色实线为过滤后数据拟合曲线,黑色实线为Fulton等 (1998) 经验Z-R关系)

    Figure 13.  Scatter plots of Z-R of different types of rainstorm (a. Type 1,b. Type 2,c. Type 3,d. Type 4) and total sample (e) (blue circles represent the data after filtering while the gray crosses represent the data without filtering,the red solid line is the fitting curve of filtered data,the purple dotted line is the fitting curve of unfiltered data,and the black solid line represents the empirical relationship from Fulton,et al (1998))

    Continued

    表  1  雨滴谱微物理特征量的含义和计算公式

    Table  1.   Definition and calculation formula of microphysical characteristics of raindrop spectrum

    特征量符号单位定义公式
    数浓度NTm−3单位空间的雨滴总量$\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } {N(D)} \text{d}D$
    雨强Rmm/h单位时间的降水量$\dfrac{ {6{\text π} } }{ { { {10}^4} } }\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^3}N(D)} V(D)\text{d}D$
    雨水含量Wg/m3单位空间雨滴总质量$\dfrac{ { {\text π}{\rho_{ {}_{{\text{w} } } } } } }{ {6000} }\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^3}N(D)} \text{d}D$
    反射率因子Zmm6m−3降水回波强度$\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^6}N(D)} \text{d}D$
    算术平均直径Damm全部雨滴的直径总和除以雨滴的总数${ {\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } {DN(D)} \text{d}D} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom { {\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } {DN(D)} \text{d}D} {\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } {N(D)} \text{d}D} } } \right. } {\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } {N(D)} \text{d}D} }$
    质量平均直径Dmmm单位体积内所有粒子直径加权质量相对于粒子总质
    量的平均直径
    ${\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^4}N(D)} \text{d}D} \Bigg/ {\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^3}N(D)} \text{d}D}$
    体积中值直径D0mm含水量的一半是由半径大于此值的大雨滴所组成的${\displaystyle\int_{ {D_{\min } } }^{ {D_0} } { {D^3}N(D)} \text{d}D} \Bigg/ {\displaystyle\int_{ {D_0} }^{ {D_{\max } } } { {D^3}N(D)} \text{d}D}$
    峰值直径Dpmm最大频率直径$ N(D) $最大值所对应的直径
    粒子谱宽Dwmm粒子最大直径和最小直径差$ {D_{\max }} - {D_{\min }} $
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2017—2020年徐州23次区域性暴雨天气过程简况

    Table  2.   Synopsis of 23 regional rainstorms in Xuzhou from 2017 to 2020

    日期暴雨站暴雨天气类型
    2017年7月5—7日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2017年7月13—15日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂低槽型
    2017年7月30日—8月3日徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁台风型
    2017年8月18—20日新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2018年7月8日徐州、邳州、睢宁低槽型
    2018年7月26—28日睢宁副热带高压边缘型
    2018年7月28—31日丰县、沛县、徐州副热带高压边缘型
    2018年8月13—15日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁台风型
    2018年8月17—19日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁台风型
    2019年6月6—7日新沂、睢宁冷涡影响型
    2019年6月28—29日新沂冷涡影响型
    2019年7月6日睢宁冷涡影响型
    2019年7月23—25日徐州副热带高压边缘型
    2019年7月27—28日丰县、徐州、睢宁副热带高压边缘型
    2019年8月1—2日丰县、沛县副热带高压边缘型
    2019年8月10—11日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁台风型
    2020年6月11—13日徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2020年6月15—18日徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2020年6月28—30日新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2020年7月11—13日丰县、沛县、徐州、邳州、新沂、睢宁低槽型
    2020年7月31日—8月1日睢宁副热带高压边缘型
    2020年8月6—7日丰县、沛县、徐州副热带高压边缘型
    2020年8月19—21日新沂副热带高压边缘型
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同类型暴雨雨滴谱微物理特征量的平均值

    Table  3.   Mean values of microphysical characteristics of raindrop spectra for different rainstorm types

    暴雨类型NT(m−3R(mm/h)W(g/m3特征直径(mm)
    DaDmD0DpDw
    低槽型     558.184.240.250.7941.1161.1000.6521.528
    副热带高压边缘型359.195.220.280.9001.3281.3100.7181.810
    冷涡影响型   419.565.810.330.8941.3131.2840.7081.894
    台风型     481.494.270.240.8171.1161.1000.6901.492
    综合      492.204.430.260.8221.1531.1370.6791.564
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-18
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-06-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-30

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