留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

基于多种探测资料对华北中部一次回流暴雪过程的分析

钤伟妙 罗亚丽 曹越 张晓 车少静

钤伟妙,罗亚丽,曹越,张晓,车少静. 2022. 基于多种探测资料对华北中部一次回流暴雪过程的分析. 气象学报,80(5):732-747 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.052
引用本文: 钤伟妙,罗亚丽,曹越,张晓,车少静. 2022. 基于多种探测资料对华北中部一次回流暴雪过程的分析. 气象学报,80(5):732-747 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.052
Qian Weimiao, Luo Yali, Cao Yue, Zhang Xiao, Che Shaojing. 2022. Analysis of a backflow heavy snowfall event in central North China using multi-source data. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(5):732-747 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.052
Citation: Qian Weimiao, Luo Yali, Cao Yue, Zhang Xiao, Che Shaojing. 2022. Analysis of a backflow heavy snowfall event in central North China using multi-source data. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(5):732-747 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.052

基于多种探测资料对华北中部一次回流暴雪过程的分析

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.052
基金项目: 灾害天气国家重点实验室开放课题(2018LASW-B02)、国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1505604)、河北省青年科学基金项目(D2019106042)、河北省气象局面上项目(20ky14)和河北省气象局指导性项目(21zc03)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    钤伟妙,主要从事强降水、对流天气分析研究。E-mail:qianweimiao@163.com

    通讯作者:

    罗亚丽,主要从事暴雨、强对流等灾害性天气分析研究。E-mail:ylluo@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P458

Analysis of a backflow heavy snowfall event in central North China using multi-source data

  • 摘要: 2020年1月5日07时至6日04时(北京时,下同)华北中部出现一次回流暴雪天气,过程最大降雪量15.5 mm。文中应用ERA5再分析和多种高分辨率观测资料分析了此次暴雪的大尺度天气背景和本地动、热力状况,探讨了暴雪落区、强度演变和降雪微物理特征及成因。结果表明,受河套地区地面倒槽和东北平原高压影响,900 hPa以下东北气流(被称为“回流”)自东北平原经渤海抵达华北平原,早于降雪7 h开始影响华北中部,受太行山阻挡在华北平原形成浅薄的近地面中尺度辐合线,对应暴雪落区;暴雪落区位于500 hPa高空槽前、700 hPa南北走向切变线东侧,850 hPa受西南低涡外围东南气流影响。降雪前1 h石家庄市观测到800 m以下转为东北风,1 km以下气温迅速下降至−5—−1℃,形成“冷垫”;暴雪区上空700 hPa附近低空急流较降雪早2 h出现,随后急流变厚、向下伸展至2 km高度,其下部暖湿空气沿“冷垫”爬升触发降雪,急流风速增至极值(19 m/s)和急流指数达峰值(约8)与大于1 mm/h强降雪时段重合,此时700 hPa上下为上升运动和水汽输送的大值中心。本次降雪粒子直径多为0.35—0.55 mm,降雪强度与粒子数浓度呈线性正相关;降雪云层位于1.3—5.5 km高度,大致以3 km (约−10℃)为分界线,下层为冰雪混合层,上层为冰雪层,冰雪层相对湿度与地面雪花粒子浓度及降雪强度呈正相关。基于雨滴谱仪探测资料反演的地面反射率因子与降雪强度拟合关系为Z=149.85R1.14

     

  • 图 1  (a) 华北地形 (色阶)、风廓线雷达 (“×”) 和 (b) 主要观测设备分布:石家庄市风廓线雷达与微波辐射计 (加号)、雨滴谱仪 (三角),石家庄 (加号)、邢台 (圆圈) 和邯郸 (圆圈) GPS水汽含量探测仪 (图a中蓝色实线为黄河,红色字体BJ、SH分别为北京和上海,虚线矩形为图b显示范围;图b中的黑色实线为京津冀各市边界,红色矩形为研究的暴雪关键区;图a和b中的橙色实线为石家庄市界)

    Figure 1.  Topography in North China (shaded),wind profilers ("×") and distribution of major instruments:wind profiler and microwave radiometer (cross),disdrometer (triangle) in SJZ,and GPS stations in SJZ (cross),XT (circle) and HD (circle) (blue line represents the Yellow River,the red letters "BJ" and "SH" denote Beijing and Shanghai,black rectangle in Figure a indicates the area shown in Figure b,the regions enclosed in black solid lines denote the cities of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei,orange thick lines in (a) and (b) denote the boundary of SJZ city,red rectangle in (b) outlines the key region of heavy snowfall)

    图 2  (a) 2020年1月5日07时—6日04时 (北京时) 累计降雪量空间分布,以及 (b) 石家庄和邢台南宫 (图(a)中分别标记“三角”和“圆圈”) 5日11时至6日01时逐时降雪量 (红色方框为暴雪关键区,黑色方框为暴雪上游区域)

    Figure 2.  Accumulated snowfall (a) from 07:00 BT 5 January to 04:00 BT 6 January and (b) hourly snowfall at SJZ (triangle) station and NG (circle) station from 11:00 BT 5 January to 01:00 BT 6 January (red rectangle outlines the key region of heavy snowfall and black rectangle outlines the upstream region of the key region)

    图 3  1月5日08时 (a) 地面气压场 (黑实线,单位:hPa)、温度场 (色阶)、风场 (红色风矢) 和地面锋面 (粗黑实线),(b) 925 hPa高度场 (黑实线,单位:dagpm)、风场和温度场 (色阶),(c) 850 hPa高度场 (黑实线,单位:dagpm)、风场和温度场 (色阶),(d) 700 hPa高度场 (黑实线,单位:dagpm)、风场和水汽通量 (色阶,单位:g/(cm·hPa·s),(e) 500 hPa高度场 (黑实线,单位:dagpm)、风场 (色阶),(f) 200 hPa高度场 (黑实线,单位:dagpm)、散度场 (色阶,单位:10−5 s−1)、水平风速 (绿色等值线,单位:m/s) 和急流核 (风向杆,风速大于60 m/s)(红色矩形为暴雪关键区,黑色圆点为石家庄,红色圆点为北京,(d) 中的红色双实线为700 hPa切变线)

    Figure 3.  Synoptic analysis at 08:00 BT 5 January (a. surface pressure (black solid line,unit:hPa),temperature (shaded),wind (red vector) and surface front (thick black solid line),b. 925 hPa geopotential height (black solid line,unit:dagpm),wind and temperature (shaded),c. 850 hPa geopotential height (black solid line,unit:dagpm),wind and temperature (shaded),d. 700 hPa geopotential height (black solid line,unit:dagpm),horizontal wind and water vapor flux (shaded,unit:g/cm·hPa·s),e. 500 hPa geopotential height (black solid line,unit:dagpm) and horizontal wind (shaded),f. 200 hPa geopotential height (black solid line,unit:dagpm),divergence (orange shaded,unit:10−5 s−1) and horizontal wind (green contour,unit:m/s);red rectangle denotes the key region of heavy snowfall;red and black dots denote Beijing and SJZ,respectively)

    图 4  ERA5再分析资料显示5日11时 (a) 1000 hPa、(c) 850 hPa水平风和假相当位温θse (等值线,单位:K) 水平分布以及沿 (b) AB线、(d) CD线的θse垂直剖面和剖面内风矢量 (a、c图中的红色矩形和b、d图中两条黑色竖线之间为暴雪区,a、c图中黑色粗实线和b图中紫色虚线为锋面位置;b、d图中黑点表示上升运动处,黑色阴影表示地高度)

    Figure 4.  Spatial distributions of horizontal wind and pseudo-equivalent potential temperature (θse, contour,K) at 1000 hPa (a) and 850 hPa (c),vertical cross sections of θse and composite in-plan flow vectors along the line AB (b) and CD (d) from ERA5 reanalysis at 11:00 BT 5 January (red rectangles (a,c) and black lines (b,d) outline the key region of heavy snowfall,the fronts below 850 hPa is denoted by the purple dotted line (b) and thick black lines (a、c),black dots represent ascending motion,black shadings represent terrain height)

    图 5  1月5日04—16时 (a—d) 间隔4 h的地面自动气象站10 m风场 (色阶表示地形高度,风向杆表示10 m水平风,蓝色粗虚线为地面辐合线,暴雪关键区和暴雪上游区域同图2)

    Figure 5.  10 m winds collected at dense automatic weather stations from 04:00 to 16:00 BT 5 January (a—d,shaded area indicates the terrain height,wind bars indicate 10 m horizontal winds,blue thick dotted lines indicate surface convergence line,red rectangle represents the key region of heavy snowfall and black rectangle outlines the upstream region of the key region,which are same as in Fig. 2)

    图 6  (a) 石家庄风廓线雷达观测的逐30 min水平风时间-高度分布和微波辐射计监测的地面 (红线)、500 m (橙线) 和1000 m (绿线) 气温逐分钟变化 (蓝色实线为12、14、16、18 m/s风速等值线,两条黑色竖线表示石家庄降雪开始和结束的时间),以及 (b) 石家庄及周边6部风廓线雷达观测的5日11时水平风垂直分布 (蓝色风矢表示风速≥12 m/s)

    Figure 6.  (a) Time-height distribution of 30 min horizontal winds (barb) observed by the wind profiler,and time series of temperature at 0,500 and 1000 m heights (red,orange,green line) from the microwave radiometer in SJZ (blue contours denote the speed of horizontal wind of 12,14,16,18 m/s and two vertical lines indicate the beginning and ending time of snowfall in SJZ),(b) vertical distribution of horizontal wind from six wind profilers near SJZ at 11:00 BT 5 January (blue barbs represent horizontal wind speed greater than 12 m/s)

    图 7  1月5日02时—6日07时石家庄相对湿度高于90% (阴影)、水平风、温度 (红色实线,单位:℃)、水汽通量 (浅蓝色实线,单位:g/(cm·hPa·s)) 和垂直速度 (蓝色实线,单位:10−3 m/s) 剖面 (黑色竖线表示石家庄降雪开始和结束时间)

    Figure 7.  Time-height cross section of relative humidity higher than 90% (shaded),horizontal wind barbs,temperature (red solid line,unit:℃ ),water vapor flux (light blue solid line,unit:g/(cm·hPa·s)) and vertical velocity (blue solid line,unit:10−3 m/s) in SJZ from 02:00 BT 5 January to 07:00 BT 6 January (two vertical lines denote the beginning and ending time of snowfall in SJZ)

    图 8  1月5日08时18分—17时18分石家庄低空急流(LLJ)指数、低空急流最低高度、低空急流最大风速和降雪量的逐6 min演变

    Figure 8.  Temporal evolutions of 6 min LLJ index,minimum height,maximum wind speed of LLJ and snowfall from 08:18 to 17:18 BT 5 January in SJZ

    图 9  降雪过程中雪花粒子直径、粒子数浓度、降雪强度的时序

    Figure 9.  Temporal evolutions of snow particle diameter,particle number concentration,and snowfall intensity during the heavy snowfall

    图 10  1月5日08时至6日08时石家庄微波辐射计观测的 (a) 积分水汽含量 (IWV,曲线) 和石家庄小时降雪量 (柱)、(b) 0—8 km温度 (虚线从上至下对应5、4、3 km高度,实线为云底高度) 和 (c) 相对湿度 (虚线从上至下对应5、4、3 km高度,实线为云底高度) 廓线的时间演变

    Figure 10.  Temporal evolution of (a) integrated water vapor (IWV,solid line) and hourly snowfall in SJZ (column),(b) 0—8 km temperature and (c) relative humidity observed by microwave radiometer from 08:00 BT 5 January to 08:00 BT 6 January (black dotted lines in (b,c) indicate 5,4,3 km respectively,and the black solid lines represent the cloud base height)

    图 11  降雪强度与粒子数浓度 (a) 和雷达反射率因子 (b) 关系拟合 (R2为决定系数)

    Figure 11.  Linear fitting between snowfall intensity and particle number concentration (a),and Z-R relationship fitting between snowfall intensity and radar reflectivity factor (b)(R2 is coefficient of determination)

    图 12  华北中部回流暴雪的天气概念模型

    Figure 12.  Schematic diagram depicting the synoptic circulation in central North China

  • 高茜,郭学良,刘香娥等. 2020. 北京北部山区两次降雪过程微物理形成机制的观测-模拟研究. 大气科学,44(2):407−420. Gao Q,Guo X L,Liu X E,et al. 2020. Numerical simulation and observation study on micro-physical formation processes of two different snowfall cases in northern mountain area of Beijing. Chinese J Atmos Sci,44(2):407-420.
    侯瑞钦,张迎新,范俊红等. 2011. 2009年深秋河北省特大暴雪天气成因分析. 气象,37(11):1352-1359 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2011.11.004

    Hou R Q,Zhang Y X,Fan J H,et al. 2011. Diagnoses of heavy snowstorm in Hebei province in late autumn of 2009. Meteor Mon,37(11):1352-1359 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2011.11.004
    胡云涛,高太长,曾培培等. 2017. 2014—2016年南京地区降雪微物理特征. 气象与减灾研究,40(2):107-110

    Hu Y T,Gao T C,Zeng P P,et al. 2017. Analysis of the micro-physical characteristics of snow in Nanjing area. Meteor Disaster Reduction Res,40(2):107-110 (in Chinese)
    黄小彦,孙继松,刘文婷. 2020. 地形作用下低空急流的演变与强降水对流风暴系统的相互作用. 气象学报,78(4):551-567 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2020.034

    Huang X Y,Sun J S,Liu W T. 2020. The interaction between low-level jet evolution and severe convective rainstorms under topographic effect. Acta Meteor Sinica,78(4):551-567 (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2020.034
    李德俊,唐仁茂,向玉春等. 2012. 基于多种探测资料对武汉一次短时暴雪天气的监测分析. 高原气象,31(5):1386-1392

    Li D J,Tang R M,Xiang Y C,et al. 2012. Analysis on a short-time snowstorm weather in Wuhan based on variety of monitor data. Plateau Meteor,31(5):1386-1392 (in Chinese)
    李德俊,熊守权,柳草等. 2013. 武汉一次短时暴雪过程的地面雨滴谱特征分析. 暴雨灾害,32(2):188-192

    Li D J,Xiong S Q,Liu C,et al. 2013. Characteristic analysis of a short-range snowstorm event in Wuhan based on ground raindrop spectra data. Torrential Rain Disaster,32(2):188-192 (in Chinese)
    李遥,牛生杰,吕晶晶等. 2019. 2018年冬季南京三次暴雪过程微物理特征分析. 大气科学,43(5):1095-1108

    Li Y,Niu S J,Lü J J,et al. 2019. Analysis on microphysical characteristics of three blizzard processes in Nanjing in the winter of 2018. Chinese J Atmos Sci,43(5):1095-1108 (in Chinese)
    孙继松. 2017. 短时强降水和暴雨的区别与联系. 暴雨灾害,36(6):498-506

    Sun J S. 2017. Differences and relationship between flash heavy rain and heavy rainfall. Torrential Rain Disaster,36(6):498-506 (in Chinese)
    王丛梅,李永占,刘晓灵. 2015. 河北省南部回流暴雪天气结构特征. 气象与环境学报,31(3):23-28

    Wang C M,Li Y Z,Liu X L. 2015. Structural feature of return-flow snowstorm in southern Hebei province. J Meteor Environ,31(3):23-28 (in Chinese)
    王丽荣,刘黎平,王立荣等. 2013. “09.11.10”石家庄特大暴雪中尺度风场分析. 气象,39(8):1023-1030 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2013.08.009

    Wang L R,Liu L P,Wang L R,et al. 2013. Analysis on mesoscale wind field of "09.11.10" blizzard in Shijiazhuang. Meteor Mon,39(8):1023-1030 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2013.08.009
    杨晓亮,尚可,段宇辉等. 2017. 基于高分辨率探测资料的降水相态错报成因分析. 暴雨灾害,36(6):535-541

    Yang X L,Shang K,Duan Y H,et al. 2017. Cause analysis of precipitation types forecast failure based on high-resolution observation data. Torrential Rain Disaster,36(6):535-541 (in Chinese)
    阎访,周顺武,王传辉等. 2015. 石家庄暴雪的天气学分型. 中国科技论文,10(21):2555-2562 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-2783.2015.21.018

    Yan F,Zhou S W,Wang C H,et al. 2015. Synoptic patterns of snowstorms in Shijiazhuang. China Science paper,10(21):2555-2562 (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-2783.2015.21.018
    叶晨,王建捷,张文龙. 2011. 北京2009年“1101”暴雪的形成机制. 应用气象学报,22(4):398-410 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2011.04.002

    Ye C,Wang J J,Zhang W L. 2011. Formation mechanism of the snowstorm over Beijing in early winter of 2009. J Appl Meteor Sci,22(4):398-410 (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2011.04.002
    易笑园,李泽椿,朱磊磊等. 2010. 一次β中尺度暴风雪的成因及动力热力结构. 高原气象,29(1):175-186

    Yi X Y,Li Z C,Zhu L L,et al. 2010. A case study on dynamic and thermal structures and mechanism of β-mesoscale snowstorm. Plateau Meteor,29(1):175-186 (in Chinese)
    于波,李桑,郝翠等. 2022. 冬奥会延庆赛区降雪与边界层东风的关系. 大气科学,46(1):181-190

    Yu B,Li S,Hao C,et al. 2022. Relationship between snowfall in the Yanqing zone of Winter Olympic Games and the easterly wind in the boundary layer. Chinese J Atmos Sci,46(1):181-190 (in Chinese)
    翟亮,郭淳薇,马新成等. 2018. 北京2016年“11·20”初雪预报偏差分析. 气象,44(1):151-158 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2018.01.013

    Zhai L,Guo C W,Ma X C,et al. 2018. Forecast deviation analysis of the first snow in Beijing on 20 November 2016. Meteor Mon,44(1):151-158 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2018.01.013
    张守保,张迎新,杜青文等. 2008. 华北平原回流天气综合形势特征分析. 气象科技,36(1):25-30 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-6345.2008.01.005

    Zhang S B,Zhang Y X,Du Q W,et al. 2008. Analysis of integrated characteristics of returnflow events in North China. Meteor Sci Technol,36(1):25-30 (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-6345.2008.01.005
    张迎新,张守保. 2006. 华北平原回流天气的结构特征. 南京气象学院学报,29(1):107-113

    Zhang Y X,Zhang S B. 2006. Structural feature of the backflow precipitation over North China. J Nanjing Inst Meteor,29(1):107-113 (in Chinese)
    张迎新,侯瑞钦,张守保. 2007. 回流暴雪过程的诊断分析和数值试验. 气象,33(9):25-32 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.09.004

    Zhang Y X,Hou R Q,Zhang S B. 2007. Numerical experiments and diagnosis on a heavy snow of return-flow events. Meteor Mon,33(9):25-32 (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.09.004
    张迎新,张守保,裴玉杰等. 2011a. 2009年11月华北暴雪过程的诊断分析. 高原气象,30(5):1204-1212

    Zhang Y X,Zhang S B,Pei Y J,et al. 2011a. Diagnostic analysis on snowstorm process in North China in November 2009. Plateau Meteor,30(5):1204-1212 (in Chinese)
    张迎新,姚学祥,侯瑞钦等. 2011b. 2009年秋季冀中南暴雪过程的地形作用分析. 气象,37(7):857-862

    Zhang Y X,Yao X X,Hou R Q,et al. 2011b. Terrain effect on heavy snowstorm in Hebei province. Meteor Mon,37(7):857-862 (in Chinese)
    周黎明,王俊,龚佃利等. 2014. 2009年初冬山东一次暴雪过程粒子谱特征分析. 气象,40(1):59-65 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2014.01.007

    Zhou L M,Wang J,Gong D L,et al. 2014. Characteristics of particle spectrum during the snowstorm process in early winter 2009 in Shandong province. Meteor Mon,40(1):59-65 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2014.01.007
    周芯玉,廖菲,孙广凤. 2015. 广州两次暴雨期间风廓线雷达观测的低空风场特征. 高原气象,34(2):526-533

    Zhou X Y,Liao F,Sun G F. 2015. Study on the relationship between mesoscale wind field changes and rainstorm using windprofiler data. Plateau Meteor,34(2):526-533 (in Chinese)
    周雪松,谈哲敏. 2008. 华北回流暴雪发展机理个例研究. 气象,34(1):18-26 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2008.01.003

    Zhou X S,Tan Z M. 2008. Case study on development mechanism of a snowstorm over North China. Meteor Mon,34(1):18-26 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2008.01.003
    周毓荃,欧建军. 2010. 利用探空数据分析云垂直结构的方法及其应用研究. 气象,36(11):50-58 doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2010.11.008

    Zhou Y Q,Ou J J. 2010. The method of cloud vertical structure analysis using rawinsonde observation and its applied research. Meteor Mon,36(11):50-58 (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2010.11.008
    Dhiram K,Wang Z. 2016. Evaluation on radar reflectivity-rainfall rate (Z-R) relationships for Guyana. Atmos Climate Sci,6(4):489-499
    Gehring J,Oertel A,Vignon É,et al. 2020. Microphysics and dynamics of snowfall associated with a warm conveyor belt over Korea. Atmos Chem Phys,20(12):7373-7392 doi: 10.5194/acp-20-7373-2020
    Jiao R G,Chen B,Habib A,et al. 2019. A case study of cold-season thundersnow in Beijing. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett,12(6):392-398 doi: 10.1080/16742834.2019.1672501
    Jiusto J E,Weickmann H K. 1973. Types of snowfall. Bull Amer Meteor Soc,54(11):1148-1162 doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1973)054<1148:TOS>2.0.CO;2
    Junker W. 2000. Winter weather forecasting. (2000-6) [2008-04]. https: //origin.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/research/snow2a/snow2a.pdf.
    Li J,Zhao S X,Yu F. 2010. Analysis of a Beijing heavy snowfall related to an inverted trough in November 2009. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett,3(3):127-131 doi: 10.1080/16742834.2010.11446859
    Liu B M,Guo J P,Gong W,et al. 2020. Characteristics and performance of wind profiles as observed by the radar wind profiler network of China. Atmos Meas Tech,13(8):4589-4600 doi: 10.5194/amt-13-4589-2020
    Miao Y C,Guo J P,Liu S H,et al. 2018. The climatology of low-level jet in Beijing and Guangzhou,China. J Geophys Res Atmos,123(5):2816-2830 doi: 10.1002/2017JD027321
    Pruppacher H R,Klett J D. 1997. Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic Publishers,954pp
    Smith J A,Krajewski W F. 1993. A modeling study of rainfall rate–reflectivity relationships. Water Resour Res,29(8):2505-2514 doi: 10.1029/93WR00962
    Stensrud D J. 1996. Importance of low-level jets to climate:A review. J Climate,9(8):1698-1711 doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1698:IOLLJT>2.0.CO;2
    Stewart R E,Thériault J M,Henson W. 2015. On the characteristics of and processes producing winter precipitation types near 0℃. Bull Amer Meteor Soc,96(4):623-639 doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00032.1
    Sun B,Wang H J. 2013. Water vapor transport paths and accumulation during widespread snowfall events in northeastern China. J Climate,26(13):4550-4566 doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00300.1
    Sun B,Wang H J,Zhou B T. 2019a. Climatic condition and synoptic regimes of two intense snowfall events in eastern China and implications for climate variability. J Geophys Res Atmos,124(2):926-941 doi: 10.1029/2018JD029921
    Sun B,Wang H K,Zhou B T. 2019b. Interdecadal variation of the relationship between East Asian water vapor transport and tropical pacific sea surface temperatures during January and associated mechanisms. J Climate,32(21):7575-7594 doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0290.1
    Sun J,Chai J,Leng L,et al. 2019. Analysis of lightning and precipitation activities in three severe convective events based on Doppler radar and microwave radiometer over the Central China region. Atmosphere,10(6):298 doi: 10.3390/atmos10060298
    Sun J Q,Wang H J,Yuan W,et al. 2010. Spatial-temporal features of intense snowfall events in China and their possible change. J Geophys Res Atmos,115(D16):D16110 doi: 10.1029/2009JD013541
    Szyrmer W,Zawadzki I. 2010. Snow studies. Part Ⅱ:Average relationship between mass of snowflakes and their terminal fall velocity. J Atmos Sci,67(10):3319-3335 doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3390.1
    Wang H J,He S P. 2013. The increase of snowfall in Northeast China after the mid-1980s. Chinese Sci Bull,58(12):1350-1354 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5508-1
    Xie Z X,Sun B. 2019. Different roles of water vapor transport and cold advection in the intensive snowfall events over North China and the Yangtze River Valley. Atmosphere,10(7):368 doi: 10.3390/atmos10070368
    Xu G R,Xi B K,Zhang W G,et al. 2015. Comparison of atmospheric profiles between microwave radiometer retrievals and radiosonde soundings. J Geophys Res Atmos,120(19):10313-10323
    Yang Z F,Huang W Y,He X S,et al. 2019. Synoptic conditions and moisture sources for extreme snowfall events over East China. J Geophys Res Atmos,124(2):601-623 doi: 10.1029/2018JD029280
    Zawadzki I,Jung E,Lee G. 2010. Snow studies. Part Ⅰ:A study of natural variability of snow terminal velocity. J Atmos Sci,67(5):1591-1604 doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3342.1
    Zeng Z L,Wang D H,Chen Y. 2021. An investigation of convective features and Z-R relationships for a local extreme precipitation event. Atmos Res,250:105372 doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105372
  • 加载中
图(12)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  217
  • HTML全文浏览量:  35
  • PDF下载量:  79
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-04
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-24
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-12

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回