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地闪三维随机模型的改进及多上行先导的数值模拟研究

林雨荷 谭涌波 余骏皓 樊佳乐

林雨荷,谭涌波,余骏皓,樊佳乐. 2022. 地闪三维随机模型的改进及多上行先导的数值模拟研究. 气象学报,80(6):999-1008 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.065
引用本文: 林雨荷,谭涌波,余骏皓,樊佳乐. 2022. 地闪三维随机模型的改进及多上行先导的数值模拟研究. 气象学报,80(6):999-1008 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.065
Lin Yuhe, Tan Yongbo, Yu Junhao, Fan Jiale. 2022. Improvement of the three-dimensional stochastic cloud-to-ground lightning model and numerical simulation of multiple upward leaders. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(6):999-1008 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.065
Citation: Lin Yuhe, Tan Yongbo, Yu Junhao, Fan Jiale. 2022. Improvement of the three-dimensional stochastic cloud-to-ground lightning model and numerical simulation of multiple upward leaders. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 80(6):999-1008 doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.065

地闪三维随机模型的改进及多上行先导的数值模拟研究

doi: 10.11676/qxxb2022.065
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1501504)、国家自然科学基金项目(41875003)、灾害天气国家重点实验室开放课题(2019LASW-A03)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    林雨荷,主要从事雷电数值模拟研究。E-mail:lyhnxd@163.com

    通讯作者:

    谭涌波,主要从事雷电物理及数值模拟研究。E-mail:ybtan@ustc.edu

  • 中图分类号: P427.3

Improvement of the three-dimensional stochastic cloud-to-ground lightning model and numerical simulation of multiple upward leaders

  • 摘要: 为了探讨地闪连接过程中多上行先导的起始与发展,考虑到光学观测事实及雷暴电场环境,本研究在已有多上行先导三维随机参数化方案的基础上,植入背景电场模块并改进上、下行先导模块。基于新模型开展大量敏感性试验,结果如下:(1)新模型模拟的下行先导形态多样、分支数大幅度减少,能更好地再现多样的地闪连接过程。(2)在孤立建筑物情况下,上行先导长度、闪击距离以及触发多上行先导的次数与建筑物高度成正相关。(3)随着建筑物增高,同一次地闪中首个始发的上行先导与后续始发的上行先导间的起始时间差整体呈现上升趋势。初步研究表明:建筑物高度对触发多上行先导的影响显著。此外,受到建筑物高度及正、负先导发展情况的影响,低矮建筑物触发的多上行先导几乎同时起始,而高建筑物上允许首个始发的上行先导优先发展一定长度后再始发后续上行先导。

     

  • 图 1  一次地闪模拟示意 (模拟域顶端红点代表下行先导随机起始位置,下行先导末端黑色段代表最后一跳)

    Figure 1.  Simulation of cloud-to-ground lightning (the red dot at the top represents the random initial position of the DL,and the black segment at the end of the DL represents the final jump)

    图 2  模型模拟结果的对比 (a. 旧,b. 新)

    Figure 2.  Cloud-to-ground lightning simulated by the old (a) and new (b) models

    图 3  单建筑物中地闪情况模拟 (闪电击中建筑物:a. 建筑物始发单个上行先导,下行先导竖直向下发展并伴随两个明显主分支;b. 建筑物始发多个上行先导,下行先导的一个主分支倾斜向下发展。闪电击地:c. 建筑物始发单个上行先导,闪电竖直向下发展;d. 建筑物始发多个上行先导,闪电竖直向下发展)

    Figure 3.  Simulation of cloud-to-ground lightning in a single structure (Lightning strikes the structure: a. a single UL initiates from the structure,and the DL with two main branches goes straight down;b. MULs initiate from the structure,and one of the DL branches slopes down. Lightning strikes the ground: c. a single UL initiates from the structure,and the lightning channel goes straight down;d. MULs initiate from the structure,and the lightning channel goes straight down)

    图 4  不同建筑物高度下触发上行先导频次 (蓝色柱表示触发单个上行先导次数,橙色柱表示触发多个上行先导次数,绿色柱表示触发上行先导总次数)

    Figure 4.  Frequencies of initiating UL from structures with different heights (blue columns represent the frequency of initiating only one UL,orange columns represent the frequency of initiating MULs,and green columns represent the total frequency of initiating UL)

    图 6  首个始发与后续始发的上行先导间起始时间差随建筑物高度的变化

    Figure 6.  Variation of the initial time difference between FUL and SUL with structure height

    图 5  不同建筑物高度下闪击距离 (a) 及上行先导长度 (b) 的统计结果

    Figure 5.  Statistical results of striking distance (a) and UL length (b) for different structure heights

    图 7  与首个始发和后续始发的上行先导间起始时间差相关的个例 (a. 建筑物高200 m,c. 建筑物高600 m,b、d分别为a、c所示个例对应的建筑物顶角电场强度随下行先导延伸的变化情况,NO1—NO4分别表示建筑物的4个顶角)

    Figure 7.  Two cases related to initial time difference between FUL and SUL (a. 200 m,c. 600 m,b,d are the electric field changes of top corners with the DL steps corresponding to the cases shown in a and c respectively,NO1—NO4 are the four top corners of the structure)

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-04-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-27

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